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CNC Troubleshooting Methods

CNC machine tool is a complex automatic machine tool with high technical content that integrates mechanics, electricity and instruments. During the operation of the machine tool, parts and components will inevitably have different degrees and types of failures. Therefore, those who are familiar with mechanical failures, mastering the common methods and means of mechanical fault diagnosis of CNC machine tools, has a significant role in determining the cause of the fault and eliminating it.

Ⅰ. Principles of numerical control troubleshooting and diagnosis

The so-called CNC machine tool system failure (or failure) is that the index control machine tool system loses the specified functions. Faults can be divided into various types according to their manifestations, nature and causes. But no matter what type of fault, there are some principles and diagnostic techniques that can be followed when diagnosing.

The troubleshooting principles mainly include the following aspects:

1. Fully investigate the failure phenomenon, first of all, investigate the operator, inquire in detail the whole process of the failure, what phenomenon occurred, what measures have been taken, etc. Then do a detailed survey of the site;

2. When looking for the cause of the fault, the thinking should be open. Whether it is integrated electrical appliances, machinery, or hydraulic pressure, as long as the cause of the fault may be caused, it should be listed as comprehensively as possible. Then make comprehensive judgment and optimization selection to determine the most likely cause of failure;


3. The principle of mechanical first and then electrical, static first and then dynamic. Before troubleshooting, you should first pay attention to eliminating mechanical failures. Then in the running state, carry out dynamic observation, inspection and testing to find faults. For destructive failures after power-on, the danger must be eliminated before power-on.

Ⅱ. The numerical control troubleshooting method

The CNC system of CNC machine tools is the core of CNC machine tools, and its reliable operation is directly related to the normal operation of the entire equipment. Summarize and extract some numerical control troubleshooting methods.

1. Make full use of the CNC system hardware and software alarm functions

There are many hardware alarm indicating devices in modern numerical control systems, and setting up hardware alarm indicating devices is beneficial to improve the maintainability of the numerical control system. The CNC system of the CNC machine tool has the function of self-diagnosis.

During the operation of the CNC system, the self-diagnosis program can be used to quickly diagnose the system. Once a fault is detected, the fault will be displayed on the CRT as an alarm or the alarm indicator on the panel will be lit. Moreover, this self-diagnosis function can also classify the fault into an alarm. 

2. The method of simple fault alarm processing of CNC machine tools

Usually, CNC machine tools have a strong self-alarm function, which can monitor the working status of system hardware and software at any time. Most of the faults of CNC machine tools can be alarmed. According to the fault prompts, the faults of the machine tools can be determined, and the faults can be dealt with and eliminated in time to improve the machine tool availability and efficiency.

3. Direct observation method for CNC troubleshooting

The direct observation method is to use the human sense organs to pay attention to various external phenomena at the time of failure (or after the failure occurs) and to judge the possible parts of the failure. This is the primary entry point for dealing with CNC system faults, and it is often the most direct and effective method. For "simple" faults in general, the problem can be solved through this direct observation.

4. The numerical control troubleshooting method using the status display diagnosis function

Modern numerical control system can not only display fault diagnosis information, but also provide various states of diagnosis in the form of diagnosis address and diagnosis data.

5. The method of checking the parameters of the numerical control system in time to judge the fault when a fault occurs

The change of the parameters of the CNC system of the CNC machine tool will directly affect the performance of the CNC machine tool, causing the CNC machine tool to fail, and even the whole machine cannot work normally. Therefore, in the process of troubleshooting and diagnosing CNC faults, even if some measures are taken, the problem still cannot be solved or the fault can be eliminated, or if the source of the fault is not clear enough, the thinking should be changed and start from the so-called "soft" fault. Check and check the parameters of the numerical control system, whether the fault caused by the change of the numerical control system parameters is often a trace of abnormality, which is the crux.

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